Ruaha National Park has a high diversity of plants and animals including elephants, buffalos, antelopes and some of the rare and endangered species like wild dogs. The park serves as water shade both for wildlife and human being. This makes it be economically significant as it supports agricultural activities downstream and contributes to hydroelectric power (HEP) for the country at Mtera and Kidatu dams.
The Great Ruaha River as other rivers like Mwagusi, Jongomero and Mzombe save as the lifeline of the park. During the dry season, these rivers become mostly the main source of water for wildlife. There are few natural springs saving the same purpose.
In the pick of the dry season, elephants obtain water from dry sand rivers using their front feet and trunks. The remaining waterfalls along the Great Ruaha River are also important habitat for hippopotamus, fish and crocodiles.